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自我决定理论例子,自我决定理论的简介

日期:编辑:恋爱技巧小百科

自我决定理论的简介

翻译:推动力的自我决定理论 (林炫威, 十二班毕业生) (英译中)

Translation: Self-Determination Theory on Motivations (Adam Lam, Grade 12 Graduate) (English to Chinese)

(translated and edited by: alexcwlin)

In the process of professional and academic developments, people run into uninspiring and boring tasks that they must overcome.

在职业和学业发展的过程中,人们遇上一定要克服的缺乏兴趣跟沉闷的任务。

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Some of those people come through with flying colors, while others just go through the motions with mediocre results.

一些人非常出色地做妥事情,同期其他人敷衍了事结果中庸。

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What distinguishes the overachievers from the underachievers in such situations?

在这些情况下怎么能辨别出卓越者跟低能者?

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Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in psychological field has the answer.

心理科领域的自我决定理论(简称SDT)有答案。

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SDT suggests the reason why people have motivational issues is not because they don’t have motivations.

SDT建议人们有动力困难的原因不是因为他们没有动力。

Rather they simply have the wrong types.

相反地他们只是有不适当的类别。

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The four types of motivations identified by SDT are: external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation.

被SDT确认的四类动机是: 外在调节,摄入调节,认同调节,和内发动机。

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The first three types are extrinsic motivations, i.e., reward/punishment based types, and each produces a different level of drive.

首先的三类是外来的动力,也即是基于赏罚的类别,每一种产生不同程度的动力。

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External regulation produces the least amount of drive through specified rewards and/or punishments on predefined results.

根据预先确定结果来断定指定的奖赏是产生最少动力的外在调节。

The pressure to attain rewards and/or avoid punishments, however, creates anxiety and discourages creativity.

达到奖赏和避免惩罚的压力然而产生忧虑和阻碍创造力。

This type of regulation is most effective in a situation where instructions are clear and time investment is minimal.

在指示明确和投入时间很少的情况下这种调节是最有效,

An example is promising extra tips to an Uber driver in quickly getting you from Point A to Point B.

例子是答应“优步”司机额外小费快捷地把你从甲点送到乙点。

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Introjected regulation produces significantly more drive on an individual.

摄入调节对一个人产生大幅度更多的动力。

Such is done through a person’s desire to maintain a positive self-image and/or avoid a guilty/shameful complex.

这是经由一个人欲望维持正面自我形象和避免内疚和丢脸感觉做成。

For example, a university student may be motivated to preserve a high-achiever identity with good grades or avoid embarrassment in fumbling through a project-presentation.

例子:一个大学生可能被推动因要以好学分来保持成就优秀者身份或避免因笨拙处理课题陈述而导致内疚或难堪的感觉。

Rewards/punishments in introjected regulation are implicit.

摄入调节的奖罚是含蓄的。

Tarnished identity from low test scores and public humiliation from botched presentation would unlikely be glaringly apparent.

因低分数而玷污形象及因搞糟报告而蒙羞不大可能会耀眼地显见。

Similar to external regulation, evoking anxiety and stifling creativity could be the downsides.

类似外在调节,激发焦虑和遏制创作性会是负面。

On the positive front, individuals who care strongly how other think of them would be highly driven.

正面上一些人强烈地关心别人对他们的观感会是有高度动力。

However, people who are largely indifferent to others’ opinions of them would be less motivated.

然而那些人大致不理会他人对他们的意见会有较少的动力。

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Identified regulation produces the most amount of drive for extrinsic motivation.

外来动力之中认同调节产生最大量的动力。

It occurs in recognizing an activity could help you fulfill deeply-felt personal values.

它发生于能识别某活动能协助你满足深深感受的个人价值观。

For example, a computer scientist student who realizes effective public speaking is extremely useful in his future career would be motivated to put in lots of efforts in presenting a project.

例如一个电脑系学生察觉有效公开演说对他的将来事业极端重要会有动力加倍努力陈述课题。

Similarly a biology-oriented student who acknowledges physical chemistry as a prerequisite for many grad/medical schools would be driven to score high in that subject.

同样地一个意向生物学的学生在确认物理化学是许多研究所和医学所必要条件会有动力去在那科目取得高分数。

In general, people motivated by identified regulation would be highly driven to complete tasks without the drawbacks of excessive anxiety.

一般来说,被认同调节推动的人们会有许多动力去完成任务而没有太多忧虑的缺点。

Such reduction in anxiety stems from an internal locus of control which originates from personal values rather than an external locus of control which originates from opinions of others.

这减少忧虑缘由于私人价值观的内在控制点而不是缘由于别人意见的外来控制点。

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The most powerful type of motivation, though the least reliable, is intrinsic motivation.

虽然是最不可靠,但最有力的动机类别是内发动机。

This is the desire to do something because you derive pleasure in doing it.

这是欲求去做一些事因为从做它你可以得到快慰。

For example, a student does well in physics or video-making is because he enjoys doing it.

例如一个学生在物理或视频制作做得好因为他喜欢做它。

In contrast, identified regulation does not necessitate task enjoyment.

相对认同调节不需要有享受因素。

On the plus side, intrinsic motivation makes tasks enjoyable.

正面上内发动机使做任务愉快。

On the negative side, it would be hard to intrinsically motivate yourself to perform a task which you dislike, and it’s easy to lose intrinsic motivation once you get to the finish line.

负面上对做不喜欢的工作难以有内发动力,和一旦做完容易失掉内发动机。

Also you can easily lose intrinsic motivation if you are promised incentives, such as a large sum of monetary reward, to complete a task.

并且你容易失去内发动机一旦你得到例如巨大奖金奖励承诺去完成任务。

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In summary, motivational issues often do not stem from a lack of motivation, but from having the wrong type.

总括来说,动机困难通常不是根由于缺乏动机,而是有不适当的类别。

Most motivations are extrinsic (i.e. reward- or pleasure-based).

大多数的动机是外来(即基于奖励或享受)。

There are three types of extrinsic motivations, and you should try and apply the type that produces the most drives in your particular case.

有三类的外来动机,你应尝试和应用在你情况下产生最多动力的类别。

Intrinsic motivation (i.e. feeling driven by pleasure) is also useful, but it's easily lost and difficult to create for tasks you don't enjoy.

内发动机(即快慰推动的感觉)亦是有用,但容易失掉并对于你不喜欢的工作难以产生。

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References:

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace. In M. Gagné (Author), The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 13-32). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2014). The history of Self-Determination Theory in Psychology and Management. In M. Gagné (Author), The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 1-9). New York: Oxford University Press.

Pink, D. H. (2012). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.

自我决定理论对管理者有何启发

自我决定是一种关于经验选择的潜能,是在充分认识个人需要和环境信息的基础上,个体对自己的行动做出自由的选择。自我决定论由美国心理学家德西和瑞安提出,强调自我在动机过程中的能动作用。自我决定论将人类行为分为自我决定行为和非自我决定行为,认为驱力、内在需要和情绪是自我决定行为的动机来源。

什么是自我决定理论?对运动训练或体育教育有什么启示?(700字)

其实社会需要的是人才,不是高中生。有硬本事是最终目标。不过最好不要放弃高中,毕竟接受高中教育也是走上社会必要的,最基本的条件啊! 1,如果你是真的不想让你的家庭付出代价,支持你再读一年重考的话(这是前提),有两个结果,第一就是接受现实,第二就是自己去挣读着一年书的钱 就第一点,我想说,其实中考不算什么它只是通向大学道路的一个路口,最重要的其实是考一个好大学。

自我决定理论和公共服务动机理论的区别与联系

作为一种新的认知动机理论,兴起于上世纪80年代的自我决定理论获得了人们的广泛关注,显示出强劲的生命力。自我决定理论强调人类行为的自我决定程度,认为社会环境可以通过支持自主、能力、归属三种基本心理需要的满足来增强人类的内部动机、促进外部动机的内化、促使人类健康成长。本文主要对自我决定理论的四个分支理论进行阐述,并对其进行简要评价。

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